Prepared by Michael W. Mandeville
This document was prepared to assist principals evaluate the logic of undertaking the commercial development of technology which will neutralize radioactivity.
Environmental Tune-Up (ET) was formed in April, 1996 to solve major environmental problems using proven, cutting-edge technology which is ready for rapid implementation throughout industry. It is currently installing oil/water separation technology in Houston.
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Paradigm Shift In The Physics Of The Atom
-- A Very Big Technology Opportunity --
I am going to point to the basis for multi-billion dollar shifts in the economic fundamentals of the nuclear power industry.
The conventional wisdom of nuclear physics is that the science known variously as quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics has defined a complete model of the energetics of matter with very nearly a complete model of the constituents of matter. According to these theories, certain "truths" have been established as the orthodox knowledge of science. Among these truths is that atoms are highly stable, unless subjected to extremely high forces, known as "high energy" physics. Connected to these truths is the idea that the radioactive decay rate of radioactive elements is immutable, in otherwords, it is a constant which operates regardless of the chemical and electrical environment of the elements. In short, it takes nuclear physics, as practiced through nuclear power reactors, to cause changes in the elements.
This prevailing scientific paradigm is flat wrong, which gives rise to a great opportunity. Researchers and experimentalists have been demonstrating since the 1920's that the nuclear physics models which were championed by Fermi and the "Copenhagen School" were wrong, or at least, fundamentally incomplete. Even Einstein did not accept the so-called truths of nuclear physics which are practiced today.
Kervran was one the earliest scientists to provide solid evidence that the atomic elements are not stable in form as taught by nuclear physicists. This French Scientist, financed by the French government, published work in the 1960's which "proved" that living cells of plants and chickens could shift elements, making calcium out of silicon and could do so when natural calcium was not present (calcium is required for all metabolic processes of cells). In short, Kervran demonstrated that "atomic chemistry" or "transmutation" was possible using low energy chemical manipulations. Kervran's work has been duplicated and is accepted in some circles, though not many outside of Europe.
Even earlier, in the 1920's, Walter Russell had demonstrated that electrical discharge through a neon type tube, containing a mixture of gasses and water, would cause a change in the elements in the tube, turning the water into 17 different elements, if magetic fields were arranged around the tube in certain ways. This experiment was repeated and verified by scientists working for Westinghouse and the data was again verified in 1992 by Dr. Timothy Binder in an article published by the American Chemical Society as part of its conference proceedings. Dr. Moray was another early inventor who conducted experiments with gases and electricity and also reported that he could cause transmutation of some elements.
This work, despite the scientific rigor with which Kervran's and Russell's experiments were conducted, has been totally ignored by American scientists because, in their minds, it must be wrong because these experiments contradict the theories which work so well in making nuclear bombs and creating electricity in nuclear power plants.
Nevertheless, this work stimulated an underground effort, composed of some scientists and some inventors, to experiment in this field or to speculate about the nature of the physics involved. The field was considered crackpot by institutionalized scientists but fortunately there are many stubborn individuals in the world who think for themselves on the basis of real world data as opposed to narrowly-focused theoretical shibboleths.
William Barker, a California physicist received patents in the late 1980's for discovering that he could neutralize the radioactivity in certain elements, or cause a pronounced change in the radioactivity, by subjecting the elements to intense electrostatic voltages.
Others undertook to verify the Barker electrostatic method, using his documentation as disclosed in his two patents. Those who undertook this study have not formally published their findings, but they have verified privately that the Barker method works. After stimulating a radioactive mineral sample with intense electrostatic voltages for several minutes, the radioactivity of the mineral gradually dimenishes until after about one year there is no measurable radioactivity left. (This finding, by the way, calls into very serious question all techniques of radioactive dating of samples which come from deeply buried strata of the earth's crust, since pressure in the earth is more than enough to achieve the electrostatic potentials which Barker uses; it is quite apparant that geologists are using a very faulty method to date some of their samples and this simple fact will have legions of geologists quite upset).
The most well developed engineering of the transmutation effect have been accomplished by Joe Champion. As a result of his work, Joe Champion can be considered the principal experimenter in the field. He is also the primary one who has become publicly visible. He has experimented with many techniques and approaches to create transmutation effects, sometimes in conjunction with Dr. Roberti Monti, Professor Bockris, and others. He claims he gets substantial results in neutralization of radioactivity and in creating various heavy metals. He has published his results in two books and through various technical reports which he has placed on the InterNet as web pages.
Jack Keller discovered in 1993, as a result of his exposure to the work of Dr. Roberto Monti, Professor Bockris, and Joe Champion, that he could use basic thermo-chemical techniques in simple equipment, which has been named the "Keller Catalytic Process", to transmute radioactive elements into stable elements (principally heavy metals) in a 30 minute process. He has given many demonstrations of this result and a few of these demonstrations have been privately documented.
Mandeville, in 1994, after writing the patent application for the Keller Catallytic Process, undertook to verify the KCP, the Barker effect, and other methods, including the stimulation of radioactive substances by the use of direct current, alternating current, magnetic flux, heat, and broadband high voltage Tesla coils. He verified that partial results could at least be obtained through all methods except magnetic flux and heat. Mandeville published his test results in "Experimental Methods For Neutralization Of Radioactivity".
There are many other experimental efforts which have explored. Beginning in 1993, Yule Brown, a naturalized Australian, has claimed and demonstrated to several parties that he can apply his oxy/hydro Bown's Gas Welding Units to achieve reduction in radioactivity.
The "cold fusion" invention by Pons and Fleishmann in 1989 opened the door more widely to the acceptance of the phenomenon of transmutation. The premise of cold fusion is that electro-chemical methods, not nuclear ones, involving fairly simple equipment, could cause the fusion, i.e. transmutation of hydrogen (deuterium isotope) into helium. Though this was derisively dismissed by the physics establishment, because they were unable to easily achieve the results which P&F claimed, many researchers around the world found that they could get partial results, enough for them to realize that nuclear physics as conceived to date was incomplete. In otherwords, the egg was cracked and it began to dawn on hundreds of researchers and experimenters that there really was a new game coming into town.
Many people began to look in earnest for the new paradigm in various ways, theoretically or experimentally. Some of this activity has been published though Dr. Eugene Mallove's "Infinite Energy" magazine. Some of it is published through the annual International Cold Fusion Conferences. Some of this activity is being reported over certain internet circuits, and some of it remains still nearly invisible.
The six or so years since the P&F announcements about cold fusion have brought enough experimental results from a number of directions to bring the field of physics to the threshold of a cross-over to new truths, where conventional nuclear physics will lie dead and quantum mechanics will be elaborately refurbished. Most conventional academicians remain blissfully unaware of the new game coming to town, but their blissful ignorance and claims of "impossible" are completely irrelevent.
The established academics in positions of scientific authority are very narrowly focused in very limited practices and are largely cut-off from seeing the larger picture. Rather than accept new evidence which proves that conventional thought is incomplete or wrong, they have a strong, invested tendency to dismiss the contradictory evidence as in error or as just plain naively wrong by crackpots. Most major new discoveries in science and technology, which require a new paradigm of thinking, face such rejection for a period of twenty years or even longer. Powered human flight, for instance was nearly universally considered theoretically impossible by the entire professional scientific establishment at the turn of the century. The Wright brothers were widely denounced as crackpots.
Despite the crackpot label, there are a growing number of highly educated, highly degreed theorists and experimenters who are helping to develop the field. Dr. Roberto Monti, Dr. Elio Conti (two Italian physicists), Professor Lev Sapogin (a Russian physicist), Dr. R.A. Brighten and other academicians have published (and are continuing to publish) theoretical work which they believe will provide the basis for scientific models for explaining the phenomenon. The emerging name for the new theory is the "Nuclear Cluster" theory, in which atoms are held to be much less rigid in structure than previously defined by the now old-fashioned equations of quantum mechanics. Monti, for instance, postulates in his "Alpha Extended Model Of The Atom", that under certain conditions alpha particles (equivilent to helium atoms, the second smallest element) can be stripped off the atom of an element and added to other atoms, causing a simultaneous shift of one element into two or more new ones. He has developed an extensive model which defines the possible transmutations.
Others have explored the mathematics for such conversions. Barker, for instance, has set forth the energy equations which cause the "re-clustering" of the nucleii of the elements.
The result of the P&F work lead directly to the Patterson Cell, which is owned by CETI, a small R&D company. During 1995 they announced that they had a type of electrolysis cell, containing beads, which would produce substantial cold fusion energy on a controlled, steady basis, which was publicly demonstrated in December, 1995 at a power utility conference in southern California.
Dr. Miley, a respected University scientist, undertook to verify those claims by repeating the CETI's experiments. After a few weeks, the CETI inventors and Professor Miley become increasingly non-communicative about their invention, undertaking additional experiments. Dr. Miley recently presented the results at two international conferences: the Sixth International Conference On Cold Fusion (Japan, November 1996) and Dr. Bockris' colloquim in Houston (September, 1996). This paper has generated widespread interest and discussion on the InterNet.
One project which is underway through members of the InterNet Vortex group is the re-examination of the spectral charts of all old spark gap experiments, which generally showed a lot of interfering lines from elements which were not supposed to be present in the electrodes. At the time, these were dismissed as impurities in the refined metals. Some now believe that these show the results of transmutation through intense, high energy spark gaps.
This examination of spark gap methods has been spurred by more direct evidence provided by work done as early as 1964 by two Japanese researchers, George Ohsawa and Masashiro Torii. These two researchers discovered that a simple carbon arc can transmute carbon and oxygen into iron. Infinite Energy Magazine is publishing an experimental design by Kenjin Sasaki, an agronomy consultant from Tokyo, hoping to stimulate widespread trials of the experiment.
Dr. Miley's paper made obvious what the basis is of most, if not all, cold fusion effects: the cold fusion electrolysis cells do not transmute hydrogen or deuterium into helium, they transmute the electrodes themselves, becoming saturated with a host of other heavy elements.
Dr. Miley also has reported that the CETI cells can transmute thorium and uranium into other elements (with 90% or better result) within 24 hours. To stimulate additional findings by experimenters, CETI is selling small lab kits of its special electrolysis cells to cold fusion researchers. Reportedly, 40 or more kits have been sold in the past two or three weeks.
It is quite clear that there is a new physics paradigm emerging, even if the name of it remains to be defined and the math worked out to satisfy the theorists. Some of the experimenters may be wrong, or not completely correct, or even fraudulant. But not all of them are. The technology appears applicable in two ways: the neutralization of radioactive wastes and the generation of inexpensive power. Inevitably, this technology will have a major impact on large, international flows of money It will also have a huge impact on politics, government, and university science departments.
First, the really big picture.
Given the prior art (Russell, Moray, Ohsawa, and others) and published work which has been done in this area, there is virtually no "generic" technology patent which can be obtained in addition to Barker's patent and applications by CETI/Miley, Joe Champion, and possibly Jack Keller. Only the narrow features of highly specific designs of particular techniques can be successfully patented at this point.
There is more than one workable pathway to effecting the efficient neutralization of radioactivity. All of this work is currently available. All of the principal researchers are eager to cooperate in the development of this field. All of the relevent patent and trade secret rights could be assembled into one group.
This work will sprout in commercial technology during the next five years. If focused by a well funded group, the best ideas for the best pathways could be established within six months in a demonstrable prototype. This approach will pre-empt the field and position itself to capture the utility industry nuclear waste set-asides. The engineer who is the most advanced for this work is Joe Champion, who has been experimentally developing the field since the late 1980's.
Pending additional research, the company has made no global estimates of the size of the market. However, given the large quantities of radioactive wastes which are posing major economic and political problems and the official forecasts by DOE and other parties that the handling of current nuclear wastes will cost over $100 billion, it is clear that the market for neutralization technology is a very large one. It is quite clear that we are at the right place at the right time. The company will develop a focused marketing plan for the technology when engineering is finished on a commercial process. It is anticipated that the primary market for the technology will be five-fold
Electrical Power Utilities:
The primary first market application of neutralization technology is likely to be the electrical power industry. There is several billion dollars in business which can be done with this industry, since the going rate for hauling and storing radioactive wastes from power plants is $10,000 per 55 gallon barrel. The electrical power industry is now required to pay funds into a collective "waste disposal" fund, administered through the U.S. government. Over $10 billion has been accumulated into this fund. In effect, the "customer" has lined up and has put his money on the table to buy a solution to radioactive wastes. But nobody is selling the solution because the disposal industry is deadlocked by political stalemate. If the company steps up to the table with a real solution, that $10 billion is the company's. It is just a matter of how long it will take to collect it. Once the D.O.E. officially recognizes the efficacy of a neutralization technology, the commercial vendor will have more business to do with this market than it will be able to handle for a few years. Scaling up to handle this market will require large amounts of capital, put a provable technology, with contracts in hand, could probably raise the capital in public stock markets very quickly at extremely attractive rates.
Military Storage Units:
The availability of technology for neutralization is likely to interest the military in acquiring the capability to directly dispose of its own wastes. Politicians are likely to be highly supportive because it would stop the build up of wastes in nuclear waste despositories and the necessity of transporting the wastes over long distances. It is likely that this sector would become the second "customer" of the technology.
Government Nuclear Waste Facilities:
There are international markets for the technology thorughout the world, primarily in a half dozen nations: U.S., France, Germany, Japan, Brazil, India, Russia, and a few others. These facilities will require long contract cycles, extensive engineering and preparatory stages, and very large sums of money. A single contract for a single facility is likely to involve several billion dollars and at least a generation or two to complete.
Medical Waster Handlers:
There are a number of companies who offer competitive services for picking up and "disposing" of nuclear wastes at nuclear waste facilities. Availability of the technology is likely to attract customers from this industry. This market will require extensive customization of equipment to handle this type of radioactive waste.
Inadvertant Waste Facilities:
There is a very large market for the technology, primarily in Russia. Nuclear wastes have been causually dumped in many locations. There is, for example, a lake in the Baltics region which, because nuclear wastes were dumped into it during the cold war periods, is now highly radioactive. Funding for this type of cleanup will likely come from international clearn-up funds, such as sponsored by European national consortiums. This type of clean-up will require creative engineering, extensive processing, and large sums of money. It is likely that this work will take at least a generation to complete.
Each of these markets can be considered to be a stage. Stage One, nuclear power plant wastes is the optimum first stage. These wastes are virtually identical, regardless of the power plant, thus the technology can be scaled and adapted to specifically handle these uniform wastes. Once the technology has been optimized for these wastes, several billion dollars of business can be done.
The income from these wastes can be used to capitalize technology for the other four markets.
It may or may not be possible to entirely eliminate all radioactivity. Some residual, low level radioactivity can continue in the materials for some period of time. However, this will pose very little problem. Low level radioactivity can be easily anchored by setting it in concrete and letting it sit for the remaining years it requires to decay. Because it generates almost no heat, the host material will stay stable.
Our guess, however, based on the experimental results that have been reported, is that radioactivity can be completely transmuted. It is just a matter of engineering.
After the development effort, the technology may or may not require the use of materials. Our guess is that host materials will be required for the best results. Our further guess is that these materials will have substantial economic values in them for secondary recovery of the "transmuted" or "reproduced" elements, which will be primarily heavy metals, some of them with high commercial values. The secondary recovery may prove so valuable, that the entire cost of the process can be borne by them, leaving the disposal fees (which is charged to utilities and government) as nearly pure profit. This must all be borne out by extensive trials, so the operative word here is "may", as in "might".
We believe that the neutralization technology can be made completely mobile, using semi-truck flatbeds. The use of mobile platforms will provide a great number of advantages, economically and politically. It will be far easier to install the equipment since no local site licensing will be required, only federal permits for "handling" of radioactive wastes at sites which are already licensed to do so by federal agencies.
The secondary recovery of minerals is best handled through a fixed location. The materials which are no longer radioactive would be transported via rail to a suitable continental location. Or, if secondary recovery is not profitable for any given wastes, they could simply be dumped at a suitable landfill.
Given the extremely technical nature and exacting nature of the technology, sale of the technology to third party service providers is not desirable. There is no trained work-force to operate the equipment, there are no skilled engineers which can manage the technology. The required training and technology management skills must be invented by the fabricator of the device. It is better that the builder of the technology keep all functions in house and provide the service of neutralization directly. The service fees should permit rapid amortization of the capital expense of the equipment.
There is more than one technology route. There is probably no generic method which can receive a patent beyond the Barker patents. The prior art done by Russell and Moray precludes anything generically patentable related to electrical discharges through gaseous mediums and magnetic manipulation. The basics of a thermo-chemical approach have been widely disclosed. Brown's BG stimulation pretty well rounds out the thermo-chemical approach, and the CETI method of direct electrical stimulation covers simple electricity applied to catalytic elements. The publishing of "Experimental Methods" in 1994 precludes generic claims related to high voltage radio frequency stimulation, as well as simple AC and DC voltages. Mandeville is making these conclusions known to patent examiners, to assist them in making rational, informed decisions about the patent applications which will no doubt come flooding in.
What can be patented are the detailed specific designs of what makes these processes reliably efficient. That will only come from well funded engineering R&D. Nearly all, if not all, of the experimenters and scientists who are involved with this, directly, or directly, are willing and able to cooperate to bring this technology to market.
Since there are no theories which will guide such engineering, and no mathematics from existing quantum or other models which can be used to predict the behavior of the materials, the technology can only be engineered on the basis of extensive experimentation, using the techniques which we know at the moment which will work. Each round of experimentation will lead to refining the approach and zeroing in on better and more efficient ways of setting up and loading the reaction.
It is highly desirable to be able to draw upon an extensive consulting network of engineers in many fields during this refinement process. Industry and technology have changed and evolved rapidly during the last twenty years and in today's market the technological capabilities keep shifting every six months. To obtain and use the optimum equipment for the most efficient techniques requires drawing the best knowledge and brains to the task in a number of fields.
The internet makes it possible to do this very efficiently at relatively low cost. The company will use the internet extensively to communicate with the world's best engineers and equipment purveyors. The company will set up its own internet linkages and specialized communication channels for these discussions. This is likely to provide the company will far better results than it could obtain by trying to spec things out piece by piece in-house.
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Last updated March 10, 1997